The ones ages 50 and older produce 78% of all political tweets from U.S. adults

BY SAM BESTVATER, SONO SHAH, GONZALO RIVER0 and AARON SMITH

Pew Analysis Middle performed this learn about to achieve perception into Twitter customers’ political engagement, attitudes and behaviors at the platform. For this research, we surveyed 2,548 U.S. grownup Twitter customers in Might 2021 about their reports at the web site, in addition to how they have interaction with politics out of doors of Twitter. Everybody who took phase on this survey is a member of the Middle’s American Tendencies Panel (ATP) – an internet survey panel this is recruited via nationwide, random sampling of residential addresses – and indicated that they use Twitter. 

Along with the survey findings, researchers from the Middle additionally tested the true Twitter profiles of a subset of survey individuals who agreed to percentage their handles for analysis functions. First, researchers accrued the entire publicly visual tweets posted between Might 2020 and Might 2021 by way of those customers. Researchers then used a system finding out classifier to spot which of the ones tweets discussed politics or political ideas. 2d, they accrued a random pattern of two,859 accounts {followed} by way of a minimum of the sort of customers – in addition to the entire accounts {followed} by way of 20 or extra respondents – and manually labeled them into other substantive classes in response to their profile data. For more info at the other strategies used on this research, see the document technique.

Listed below are the questions used for the document, along side responses, and its technique.

Kind of one-quarter of American adults use Twitter. And once they percentage their perspectives at the web site, moderately frequently they’re doing so about politics and political problems. A brand new Pew Analysis Middle research of English-language tweets posted between Might 1, 2020, and Might 31, 2021, by way of a consultant pattern of U.S. grownup Twitter customers unearths that totally one-third (33%) of the ones tweets are political in nature.

Echoing the Middle’s findings in its prior research of tweeting conduct, whether or not political or differently, nearly all of those political tweets are produced by way of a minority of customers. And sure demographic teams are particularly lively members to the whole quantity of political content material on Twitter. Maximum particularly, American citizens ages 50 and older make up 24% of the U.S. grownup Twitter inhabitants however produce just about 80% of all political tweets. And 36% of the tweets produced by way of the everyday (median) U.S. grownup Twitter consumer age 50 or older include political content material, more or less 5 instances the percentage (7%) for the tweets from the everyday 18- to 49-year-old.

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Extra widely, American citizens who tweet essentially the most about politics fluctuate in numerous techniques from the ones for whom politics is a much less central subject of debate. Those “high-volume” political tweeters are considerably much more likely than different customers to mention that they use Twitter to specific their very own critiques (67% vs. 34%); that they discuss politics with others once or more per week (53% vs. 33%); that they contributed to a political marketing campaign within the remaining 12 months (46% vs. 21%); or that they take part in politics as a result of they experience it, versus viewing it as a civic accountability (27% vs. 14%).

On the identical time, a bigger percentage of those politically vocal customers say the folks they observe on Twitter have an identical affairs of state to their very own (45% vs. 25%). And in spite of – or possibly as a result of – their common forays into the arena of political tweeting, those that tweet essentially the most about politics are in reality much less most probably than different customers to mention that Twitter is a good way to get folks to switch their minds about political or social problems. Simply 34% of essentially the most lively political tweeters really feel this fashion, when compared with part of those that tweet much less about politics. 

This research builds at the Middle’s earlier analysis on political content material on Twitter, which recognized related content material the use of slightly strict, keyword-based approaches. As an example, our 2019 exam of politics on Twitter excited about discussions of politics on the nationwide stage and labeled tweets as political in nature solely in the event that they “point out[ed] or specific[ed] fortify or opposition towards nationwide politicians or elected officers, political events, ideological teams or political establishments, or particular political behaviors like balloting.” This definition excluded mentions of state or native politics and politicians, in addition to discussions of coverage problems and present occasions that lift a political valence however don’t explicitly reference nationwide political figures or teams.

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This new research identifies political content material with extra nuance and subtlety. Researchers on the Middle skilled a supervised system finding out classifier on an expert-validated selection of tweets that human coders had learn and labeled in keeping with whether they referenced political officers and activists, social problems, or information and present occasions. This classifier was once then in a position to be told the textual patterns and phrases that lead human readers to acknowledge a tweet as “about politics” and determine such patterns in tweets that people had no longer prior to now coded. With a broader definition of political content material and a extra versatile classifier, this research extra comprehensively displays the variability and variety of political dialogue because it happens on platforms like Twitter. No longer strangely given those definitional variations, the present research identifies a bigger percentage of tweets as political in nature.

Some of the different primary findings of this exam of the political traits, attitudes and on-line behaviors of U.S. adults on Twitter:

Chart showing Retweets and quote tweets are especially likely to reference politics

Retweets and quote tweets are much more likely to include political content material than authentic tweets. This research of 1 12 months of tweets from a consultant pattern of U.S. grownup Twitter customers unearths that positive kinds of tweets are much more likely than others to include political content material. Kind of four-in-ten retweets (44%) and quote tweets (42%) from those customers have been discovered to pertain to politics. However that percentage falls to 26% for replies – and to simply 8% for authentic tweets.

Democrats and Republicans who use Twitter have other political reports at the web site. A bigger percentage of Democrats than Republicans (together with political independents who “lean” towards both birthday celebration) say they have got tweeted about political or social problems within the 30 days previous the survey (30% vs. 17%). And a bigger percentage of Democrats say that Twitter may be very efficient at elevating public consciousness about political or social problems (28% vs. 17%). 

American citizens from each and every birthday celebration additionally document seeing various kinds of political content material at the web site. Democrats who use Twitter are two times as most probably as Republicans to mention they most commonly observe accounts with an identical political affairs to their very own (40% vs. 20%) or that they disagree with few or not one of the tweets they see (33% vs. 16%).

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However some Twitter behaviors pass birthday celebration traces. Significantly, an equivalent percentage of Democrats and Republicans on Twitter (17%) say they tweeted about sports activities within the 30 days previous the survey.

Chapter showing one-in-five accounts followed by a large number of U.S. adults are politicians and government figures

Political figures make up 20% of the accounts {followed} by way of a lot of U.S. adults. Politicians, executive figures, public workplaces, and public officers make up simply 1% of the entire accounts {followed} by way of this consultant pattern of U.S. grownup Twitter customers. However those entities are way more prevalent a few of the most-followed accounts: Absolutely 20% of the accounts {followed} by way of a minimum of 20 particular person respondents fall into this class. Media organizations and reporters, in addition to coverage or advocacy organizations, also are particularly extra prevalent within the accounts which are extensively {followed} by way of U.S. adults on Twitter.

“Twitter-only” political engagement is slightly uncommon. The Middle’s survey requested about plenty of political behaviors that customers may take, each on Twitter (equivalent to tweeting a couple of political or social factor) and stale (equivalent to balloting or contributing cash to a marketing campaign). Nearly all of Twitter customers engaged in a minimum of the sort of actions within the previous 12 months. By way of a ways the biggest percentage – 58% – engaged each on Twitter and in other places, and any other 34% took phase solely in non-Twitter efforts. Simply 3% of U.S. grownup Twitter customers say they took some type of political or civic motion on Twitter within the remaining 12 months however didn’t accomplish that out of doors the platform.

Customers say political content material makes up a bigger percentage of what they see than of what they put up. Some 41% of U.S. grownup Twitter customers say that numerous what they see on Twitter is said to political or social problems. However simply 12% say numerous what they themselves put up is said to those subjects.

Supply By way of https://www.pewresearch.org/politics/2022/06/16/politics-on-twitter-one-third-of-tweets-from-u-s-adults-are-political/